Nathanael Lindahl

  • 18 and 19; and for the digital muscles, Fig. 20). We also found some differences in LAR and ab/adduction moment arms concerning the hip for B.A.S.’s data, but these are probably explained by differing muscle paths (e.g., by means of points and wrapping); see Figs. 125. Bates Schachner (2012) acknowledge that their model could not use each by…[Read more]

  • A single may well predict a lot more dependency of maximal muscle moment production on moment arms for muscles which have far more variable moment arms, but this has not been conclusively determined. Lieber Brown (1992) found that there was no straightforward connection between muscle fibre length and moment arm in seven frog hindlimb muscle…[Read more]

  • 1 may predict a lot more dependency of maximal muscle moment production on moment arms for muscle tissues which have much more variable moment arms, but this has not been conclusively determined. Lieber Brown (1992) discovered that there was no very simple partnership among muscle fibre length and moment arm in seven frog hindlimb muscle…[Read more]

  • Ction. One could possibly predict extra dependency of maximal muscle moment production on moment arms for muscles that have extra variable moment arms, but this has not been conclusively determined. Lieber Brown (1992) located that there was no easy relationship between muscle fibre length and moment arm in seven frog hindlimb muscle tissues,…[Read more]

  • Bates Schachner (2012) acknowledge that their model couldn’t use each by way of points and wrapping surfaces for the exact same muscle. This limitation explains the switch of their ILFB knee moment arm from flexor to extensor with knee flexion (in contrast to Smith et al.’s (2007) information); our model only exhibits this switch at intense knee…[Read more]

  • 2001) vs. anatomically-realistic 3D musculoskeletal models (Delp et al., 1999; Arnold et al., 2000; Kargo Rome, 2002; Brown et al., 2003b; Burkholder Nichols, 2004; Blemker Delp, 2006; O’Neill et al., 2013) show far better agreement between the latter two procedures, and places where very simple 2D measurements are imprecise or misleading.…[Read more]

  • Inally, a test of your validity of our moment arm estimates against a “gold standard” empirical measurement (see above) with explicit criteria for an acceptable level of precision would be beneficial. Yet like any model, basic or complicated, our model is often a helpful starting point for a continually iterative method of improvement (enhanced by…[Read more]

  • anatomically-realistic 3D musculoskeletal models (Delp et al., 1999; Arnold et al., 2000; Kargo Rome, 2002; Brown et al., 2003b; Burkholder Nichols, 2004; Blemker Delp, 2006; O’Neill et al., 2013) show superior agreement between the latter two strategies, and places where uncomplicated 2D measurements are imprecise or misleading. To be fair,…[Read more]

  • Urement that the aforementioned research could be compared against, and thus it truly is unclear which estimates of moment arms are definitely far more precise and reliable than others. Our judgements above might prove to become incorrect. We assume right here, except exactly where noted, that our moment arm estimates are normally an improvement…[Read more]

  • Ostriches, even so, don’t stand or typically move with such extended hip joints (Rubenson et al., 2007). We suspect this difference is due to the fact of their two orders of magnitude smaller sized physique size (65+ kg vs. six,000+ kg) and therefore the lack of necessity for extreme postural alterations to maintain reduce muscle stresses as a way…[Read more]

  • To prior final results for Tyrannosaurus rex (Hutchinson et al., 2005). Ostriches, nonetheless, do not stand or generally move with such extended hip joints (Rubenson et al., 2007). We suspect this distinction is since of their two orders of magnitude smaller body size (65+ kg vs. six,000+ kg) and hence the lack of necessity for intense postural…[Read more]

  • Urement that the aforementioned studies might be Blic has been produced by the committee to inquiry compared against, and therefore it truly is unclear which estimates of moment arms are truly extra correct and trustworthy than others. We assume right here, except exactly where noted, that our moment arm estimates are usually an improvement over…[Read more]

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